File Entry: krishnasarmapathy-Entecavir Patent Evaluation, Molecular Modelling Study of Drug-Resistant HBV

Created: 2018-06-21 05:38:08
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Version created on: 2018-06-21 05:38:08

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Entecavir is an oral antiviral drug used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection. Entecavir is a guanosine nucleoside analogue with selective activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV), which inhibits reverse transcription, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic in South Africa and across sub-Saharan Africa, where around 8% of people are chronically infected, and rates of HBV-related liver cancer are some of the highest in the world. Globally, viral hepatitis causes approximately 1.3 million deaths every year-more than either malaria or tuberculosis-with around 240 million people chronically infected with HBV1. The currently available anti-HBV drugs show potent antiviral activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B; however, the resistance and cross-resistance to the drugs is a major obstacle in long-term treatment. Many studies have been conducted to understand the molecular basis of drug resistance, and the mechanistic characterization and molecular modeling of anti-HBV drugs complexed with HBV RT have been reported.

Although the three-dimensional X-ray structure of HBV polymerase is not available, its homology model has been reported using the X-ray structure of HIV RT as a template [1-5]. Even though the homology models may not be accurate due to the low sequence homology between the overall HIV and HBV polymerase, the sequence conservation between the RT domains of HIV and HBV polymerase enables molecular modeling of HBV RT [6]. In particular, the residues around the active site that are responsible for recognizing the template-primer or an incoming nucleoside triphosphate are highly conserved. Nucleoside analogue HBV polymerase inhibitors cause chain termination after incorporation into the growing chain in the active site of HBV polymerase and consequently inhibit viral reverse transcriptase. Thus, the HBV homology model structure based on the crystal structure of HIV polymerase serves as a useful guide for understanding the molecular basis of HBV resistance to drugs.

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